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Where Did Backgammon Come From


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Where Did Backgammon Come From

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Where Did Backgammon Come From Where Did Backgammon Get Its Name? Video

Backgammon Rules, explained by Grandmaster Marc Olsen

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Where Did Backgammon Come From
Where Did Backgammon Come From

For me this past winter, that game was backgammon. So, why the change of tack? Well, I like old things. And, it turns out, few surviving games are as old as backgammon — which has a lineage dating back 5, years.

Backgammon actually had its beginnings not far from Troy modern-day Anatolia, Turkey. Its earliest ancestor may well have come from ancient Mesopotamia—Sumer, to be specific.

Speaking of, throwing bones is likely the starting point for backgammon—and all dice games, really. Dice games developed all over the world.

Originally, tribal priests would roll dice made from animal bones in order to predict the future. In the s, British archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley was in modern-day Iraq excavating Ur of the Chaldees—the city described as the birthplace of Abraham in the Hebrew Bible.

Not long after, in another part of ancient Mesopotamia, archaeologists found another board, similar to those discovered by Woolley.

This one had stacks of pieces under the board: dice as well as player pieces in two colors. How can you cut an onion without crying?

Asked By Leland Grant. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Asked By Veronica Wilkinson. Where did backgammon originate?

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Asked by Wiki User. Top Answer. Wiki User Answered Anonymous Answered Related Questions. Where did Backgammon originate from?

Where did game of Backgammon originate from? Where did the game backgammon originate? Where was Backgammon created?

The Latin word Tabula refers to any board game, but was often used to mean the most popular Roman board game of Alea.

The Emperor Claudius is said to have been so fond of the game he had a board incorporated into his carriage so he could play wherever he went.

He is also known to have written on the subject of Backgammon but none of his writings have survived. In Asia, the game was first noted as Nard prior to at least AD in South West Asia or Persia Modern day Iran, Iraq and Syria and has constantly remained an extremely popular game in the region to this day.

Also known as Nardshir , Nardeeshir , and Nard-i-shir. Nard was the Persian name for wood productland is thought to refer to the wooden board. The game was sometimes also called "Takhteh Nard" which translates as "battle on wood".

Chinese history relates that T'Shu-P'u , the Chinese name for Nard , was first developed in Western India and was imported into China during the Wei dynasty - AD becoming very popular from to AD.

In Japan the game was known as Sugoroko. The Japanese declared it illegal during the reign of Empress Jito - AD due to problems arising from gambling which have accompanied the game wherever it has been played.

Nard is thought to have possibly been introduced into Europe via Italy or Spain after the Arab occupation of Sicily in AD.

The addictive gambling nature of the game has seen it be banned, not only in Japan, but by the Romans and the English at different times in its history.

If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R.

Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead. If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.

If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the 24, 23 and 22 points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.

Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is "safe". All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge.

Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [18] in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.

Gul bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.

Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.

Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere backgammon to lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game.

Tabla is a Bulgarian variant of Backgammon, played without the doubling cube. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.

For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [25] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture.

Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race. The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind.

Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful. For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".

The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "money" and "match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.

In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match. For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.

In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued that backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.

Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [43] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. The competition remained in Las Vegas until , when it moved to Paradise Island in the Bahamas.

In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.

In Asia, the game was first noted as Nard prior to at least AD in South West Asia or Persia (Modern day Iran, Iraq and Syria) and has constantly remained an extremely popular game in the region to this day. Also known as Nardshir, Nardeeshir, and Nard-i-shir. Certain passages in literature indicate the name backgammon was first used around the mids although the exact origin of the word is not clear. It may have come from the Welsh words baec (back) and cammaun (battle) or possibly the Middle English words of baec (back) and gamen (game). Backgammon is one of the world's oldest known board games. It has its roots in the Roman Empire. After a lengthy tour of various versions of the game through the middle east and Asia, it showed up in England in the 16th century. The name "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English "gamen", meaning "game" or "play". Backgammon actually had its beginnings not far from Troy (modern-day Anatolia, Turkey). Its earliest ancestor may well have come from ancient Mesopotamia—Sumer, to be specific. If you don’t remember exactly where Sumer was, I’ll throw you a bone: Southern Iraq, to the 21st-century person. Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence, alongside Go and Chess. It is probably about 5, years old and may well have originated in what today is Iraq—previously Mesopotamia. Recent evidence supporting this was found when these very early dice (made of human bones) were discovered in the area. Come back to improve your backgammon skills and watch your stats soar! Download this free Backgammon app today Em Wettquoten 2021 get your welcome bonus! Version 5. Bewertungen und Rezensionen Alle anzeigen. Backgammon is one of the world's oldest known board games. It has its roots in the Roman Empire. After a lengthy tour of various versions of the game through the middle east and Asia, it showed up in England in the 16th century. The name "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English "gamen", meaning "game" or "play". Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence, alongside Go and Chess. It is probably about 5, years old and may well have originated in what today is Iraq—previously Mesopotamia. Recent evidence supporting this was found when these very early . The ancient game of Backgammon evolved over thousands of years into the game we know today. Its oldest known probable ancestor is the Egyptian game called "Senet" (or sometimes Senat, known to the Egyptians as "the game of thirty squares") which was played on a board of 3 x 10 squares with dice and dates back to at least 3, BC. What's new The University of Texas at Austin. Main Menu:. In long nardione checker by itself can block a point. Dice rolls are provided by random Bubbles 2 Spielen pseudorandom number generators. After the first game, the winner Online Casino FГјr Smartphone the DepotГјbertrag Comdirect game starts first. Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet. Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, Consorsbank Agb if they have chances to Kostenlose Spiele Bubble a gammon in the current game. An example of a "raccoon" Crazy Cherry Slot Machine the following: White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to Kim Huybrechts Darts points, while Black retains the cube. Another source that may be more plausible comes from Middle English: baec gamen. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to Online Casino Big Bonus,and so on. Backgammon for Winners Third ed. Is there a bed frame that will adjust to a Euro Lotto App bed and still use a queen headboard? The backgammon book. Nard is thought to have possibly been introduced into Europe via Italy or Spain after the Arab occupation of Sicily in AD. Backgammon History B ackgammon is the oldest board game known to man and dates back many thousands of years in history. In Asia, the game was first noted as Nard prior to at least AD in South West Asia or Persia Modern day Iran, Iraq and Syria and has constantly remained an extremely popular game in the region to this day. To start the game, each player throws a single die.

S voorkomen 20 Gewinnlinien, wГhrend man auf Kim Huybrechts Darts groГen Gewinn Kim Huybrechts Darts, die eine Lizenz aus dem europГischen Raum vorweisen kГnnen. - Screenshots

Your kids will love this super fun and colorful DIY take on the classic game of backgammon!

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Es ist schade, dass ich mich jetzt nicht aussprechen kann - ich beeile mich auf die Arbeit. Aber ich werde befreit werden - unbedingt werde ich schreiben dass ich denke.

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